HOW TO MAKE A SOCIETY FREE OF VIOLENCE
Every year, about 400 women are officially killed by domestic violence in Kazakhstan. It’s at least one woman a day. Experts discussed the root causes and what measures will be most effective in the process of eliminating domestic violence in the framework of the online seminar “Kazakhstan on the way to achieving SDG16.1″ How to make society free from violence. ” Learn more about Correspondent Strategy2050.kz.
According to statistics, there has been a steady increase in violent crimes in family relations over the past five years. If in 2015 the registered cases of intentional infliction of grievous bodily harm amounted to 8.6%, then already in 2019 their number amounted to 18.7%. Cases of intentional infliction of moderate bodily harm in the family and household sphere: in 2015 – 2%, in 2019 – already 11%. In just 5 months of this year, the number of offenses in the family and household sphere increased by 25%.
To date, the Majilis is considering a bill on countering domestic violence. We are talking about increasing responsibility for offenses in the family and household sphere. This was told by a member of the National Commission on Women and Family and Demographic Policy under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, human rights activist, public figure Saltanat Tursynbekova during an online conference.
“These issues are very actively raised by our social organizations against domestic violence. All these organizations are members of the working group in Parliament. They all go to the sites with explanations for citizens. If all these resources unite (state, social activists), then we will be able to come to some results, “said Tursynbekova.
It should be noted that Tursynbekova worked in the Prosecutor General’s Office, was the head of the project “Kazakhstan without domestic violence,” solved the problems of violence against women and children in the country, carried out work, collecting data, statistics, doing analysis, affecting all layers of women victims of violence. She worked in prisons with women who got there in self-defense, made interviews among convicts. She also worked as Deputy Chairman of the Scientific Council of the Institute for the Study of the Problems of Law, Order and Advanced Training of Prosecutors at the S. Yeskaraev Prosecutor General’s Office of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
“Unfortunately, despite the measures taken, violence against women and children is still widespread throughout the world. We are all united in the opinion that the main task in eliminating violence is not to combat the consequences, but to prevent. And for this, of course, it is necessary to determine the causes and solve problems at the root, without waiting for serious consequences, “the speaker said.
In her opinion, social and labor instability, loss of life guidelines and family values, drug addiction and alcoholism, low educational and cultural level, communication problems, social isolation and closeness of the family, low awareness, poor prevention are far from a complete list of the causes of increased domestic violence.
“70% of offences are committed while intoxicated or intoxicated. The main causes that lead to fatalities are alcoholism and drug addiction. Therefore, you need to fight this. I believe that prevention in this area suffers. The second is social problems, such as loans, unemployment, benefits, low household incomes. The third is a mentality that is connected not so much with traditions, but with the upbringing of spiritual values in the family, “said Tursynbekova.
She noted that the values have not changed this time.
“We conducted research in the framework of the project” Kazakhstan without domestic violence. ” 80% of the population in the south “stand” in the market. Coming to work at 8 in the morning, the tired leave at 21:00. Mothers, who are mainly engaged in raising children, they have no time to take them to circles, confidently communicate. I can’t say everything. But in most cases, the lack of trust in the family has an impact, “the speaker explained.
She added that, among other things, the Internet is available to many today, and children can draw on almost any content. This negatively affects behavioral norms. In addition to everything, bullings are present in schools – this is an environment where aggression and cruelty manifest. In her opinion, having not received an understanding with her parents at home, the child falls into such an environment. If violence is present between parents, then the child adopts this model of behavior. All this forms the root causes of domestic violence.
Deputy Chairman of the Alliance of Women’s Forces of Kazakhstan Aziza Shuzheeva also believes that the problem of domestic violence is a complex problem.
“In Kazakhstan, the structure of the population has changed during the period of independence. About 1 million people left the country – this is creative intelligentsia, technical specialists, people left who had a good level of education, which in the Soviet Union was at a good level and people, in general, had access to higher quality technical, medical and other types of education. Another population arrived – Oralmans, residents from neighboring states. For the most part, people came with a low level of education. Secondly, we see the degradation of the education system in the country. The status of the teacher has changed. If earlier the teacher and the school performed an educational function, now this is not. That is, in general, the level of education of the population has fallen. This is evidenced by all international ratings on the level of education in Kazakhstan, “said Shukeeva.
She added that this is also due to the fact that the arrived Oralmans, often with a difficult social situation, could not get an education here.
“The level of education has fallen – the level of legal literacy has fallen. People do not know that they should be responsible for their actions, including young people. The third is information policy. I, as a media specialist, will say that any entertaining sitcom now has such heroes as mother-in-law and kelin. What we are talking about there is a showdown between them – that is, domestic violence. There are a lot of such examples, “Shukeeva complained.
The fourth factor, in her opinion, is the lack of a system for protecting citizens. We always have a victim to prove that she was abused. To achieve the truth, you need a resonance, you need a terrible crime to happen, a letter to the Head of State and only after the state machine works. That is, we have after the fact.
“The last, important role was played by the decriminalization of domestic violence in 2017 – commutation of sentences, which was almost reduced to warnings. This is against the backdrop of the fact that state bodies are divided and there is no one responsible person – it’s all layered, and we have what we have, “the speaker noted.
In addition, she noted that there is a certain gap between the infrastructure and the economic situation of the city and the village. The difficult social situation, the lack of infrastructure, a developed cultural, sports life – all this puts pressure on the family, and such situations with domestic violence arise.
According to her, inequality between women and men is a very serious problem.
How to effectively correct the situation
According to Shukeeva, the country needs legal universality.
“In addition, it is necessary that the educational function in schools works. And we should also have an information policy that we – Kazakhstan – are a multicultural modern society. This is a comprehensive work of all voiced blocks, “the speaker said.
In addition, the experts agreed that the country needed a national system for the protection of women and children from domestic violence, which would include comprehensive interdepartmental work with the family.
Saltanat Tursynbekova, member of the National Commission for Women and Family and Demographic Policy, recalled that at present the victim of violence cannot change his testimony immediately after giving them, but only after 3 days.
“You need to understand that a woman after sexual violence cannot always respond adequately, based on her psychological state. And in this legislation, she cannot change her testimony immediately after giving them, but only after 3 days. At this moment, very often there is powerful pressure from the offender, his relatives. These norms need to be changed in the legislation, “said Tursynbekova.
She added that the new bill for the first time enshrined the rights of victims.
In addition, the bill introduced rules to protect the rights of children if they were victims or witnesses of domestic violence. In the event of a threat to the life and health of family members, the police have the right to immediately prohibit the domestic aggressor from being in the same home as the victim for up to 10 days. For the first time, a norm is introduced that obliges a family brawler to undergo a psychocorrection program. The right of citizens to participate in public control is provided for. The deputies proposed the annual submission to the President of the National Report on the situation of domestic violence in the country.
In addition, the competence of local executive bodies includes a number of tasks to implement a strategy aimed at targeted work with families in difficult life situations, and to carry out systematic monitoring of the situation with domestic violence and social disadvantage. It is proposed to create independent departments for family, children and youth in the regions. It is proposed to establish family support services in all parts of the country in order to organize crisis beds for women in rural areas. The norm for the functioning of special mobile groups is being discussed, where citizens themselves will participate. In cases of violence or any difficult situation in which women or children are found or identified, the competent authorities are obliged to take prompt measures to ensure their protection.
Tursynbekova noted that the current criminal and administrative types of responsibility, unfortunately, do not deter rapists from committing new crimes, do not affect the correction of the behavior of domestic aggressors.
“A lot of repeat offenses, in some cases, criminals evade responsibility or are given punishment that is not adequate for the offense committed. Therefore, deputies and social activists propose to introduce an additional qualifying feature in the relevant articles of the criminal code for committing intentional infliction of grievous bodily harm, moderate harm, torture and threat in the family. What exactly will this achieve? This will directly affect the term and amount of sentences. That is, if a person has committed a serious crime in the family, today he faces from 3 to 7 years in prison. And with the introduction of a qualifying feature, the sentence will increase from 5 to 10 years. When committing a crime of moderate gravity, he will already be deprived of his liberty for up to 3 years. For systematic beatings or torture, today the term of imprisonment is up to 2 years. If they introduce a qualifying feature, then this period will already increase to 7 years, “the speaker explained.
In conclusion, she noted that deputies are invited to criminalize administrative norms for intentional infliction of light bodily harm and beatings and transfer to the category of criminal offenses of minor severity. This will involve perpetrators of domestic violence in community service, restriction or actual deprivation of liberty.
Recall that in September 2015, 193 member states of the United Nations adopted a new development agenda to continue progress in achieving sustainable development – “Transforming our world: an agenda for sustainable development until 2030.”
The Agenda entered into force on 1 January 2016 and includes 17 the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets to be achieved before 31 December 2030 except for those with earlier dates. Kazakhstan supported the Sustainable Development Goals, as they are fully consistent with the goals and objectives facing it as a State open to the world and actively involved in global cooperation. SDGs include all elements of human well-being on the planet now and in the future. Goal 16.1 – Significantly reduce the prevalence of all forms of violence and reduce mortality from this phenomenon worldwide. The international community believes that success in implementing the Goals depends primarily on the involvement of civil society. More than 4 years after Agenda 2030, public awareness of SDGs remains low.
Author: Rabiga Nurbai
Photo: From Open Sources
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